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Biocides, also called “bactericides” or “antimicrobials”, are used in oil and gas production. Their air is to kill microorganisms, especially bacteria, or interfere with their activity. Microorganisms in oilfields or in injection water are generally classified by their effect. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs), denitrifying bacteria (hNRB), slime forming bacteria, iron-oxidizing bacteria, and miscellaneous organisms such as algae, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB), yeas and molds, and protozoa can be encountered in bodies of water of oilfields to be treated.



Micro-organisms are an important group of living organisms which take care of decomposition of organic matter. They are heavily abundant in the entire ecosystem and can easily be adapted to more severe conditions. Given adequate food sources, for instance, bacteria are capable of doubling their population in 20 minutes under many conditions. Thus a single bacterium can become a thriving colony of millions of bacteria in a few hours. In water systems, bacteria flourish in the pH range between 5 and 9 in the temperature range of -5 to +50℃. Bacteria grow best in fresh waters, but are capable of growth in brine of concentrations as high as 100,000 ppm. This results in the unwanted presence of micro-organisms in industrial processes and significant microbiological control costs.


For the purpose of industrial water treatment where open and closed systems are used, bacteria may best be classified according to their oxygen requirement. Obligate aerobes grow only in the presence of molecular oxygen, while obligate anaerobes grows only in the absence of oxygen in environments of low oxidation/reduction potentials facultative anaerobes grow either in the presence or absence of oxygen.